I was inspired to write this guide after a reader wrote in to complain that despite following my recipe to a tee, his original gravity reading came in very low. As all-grain brewers, we have all had this problem eventually. It has happened to me on more than one occasion, and it is beyond frustrating to experience. For too long, I assumed that if I missed my target OG, that was the end of it. I should pitch my yeast and hope for the best, knowing I’d end up with a ridiculously low ABV beer at the end of it. After you have dished out all that money on ingredients, this feeling sucks. But that was before I learned how to troubleshoot this oh-so-common problem.

In a moment, I’ll walk you through how to fix a low OG, but first, let’s make sure we’re all on the same page on some of the factors that play a role in your OG before you get to the point of having to make corrections:

**Grain milling.**This has a huge impact on your brewhouse efficiency (i.e., the amount of sugar you can extract from your grains). Your grains need to be crushed finely. Too coarse and you’re well on your way to low OG. With BIAB brewing, we can err on the side of very fine crushing. Your local homebrew shop should be able to help you mill the grains well. If in doubt, tell the shop you’re brewing in a bag so they know what you’re working with.**Accurate volumes.**I’d say brewing beer is a lot more like baking, and a lot less like cooking. You need to be accurate with all your measurements. Don’t eyeball it. If the final volume is 8% larger than expected, you’ll see an 8% decrease in OG.**Knowing your brewhouse’s**behaviour**.**Every brewer’s setup will be a touch different than the next guy’s. My system uses a very wide pot that tends to evaporate water ridiculously fast. So I need to use more water than a standard stock pot. Your pot may well do the opposite. Only you can measure the degree to which my system differs from yours. As you brew, especially when you’re getting started, you need to measure your volumes. How much liquid is left after the mash? More importantly, how much liquid is left after the boil? This will determine your evaporation rate (which can also be affected by your altitude, humidity, the width of your pot, burner temperature, among other things).

Of course, you may be stumbling upon this guide because you’re in the middle of brew day and you realize your gravity reading is way too low. You’re probably thinking, “dammit Lavoie, get on with it!” Message received!

## How to correct your original gravity

### When your OG is too low

I’ve got good news for you lad: it’s pretty easy to adjust your OG! Your friend—no, your saviour—is dry malt extract. I always keep a pound or two of light DME extract in the house, just in case I need it. This is what will save your bacon (or your wort, anyway). You’re going to toss a calculated amount into the wort to boost your gravity up to your target range.

Let’s first cover some basic math. Full credit goes to Brad Smith for these formulas.

- Calculate the difference between your target OG and what you ended up with. Multiple that number by 1000 to get a points reading. For example, if your target OG is 1.060 but you’re sitting at 1.035, you’d end up with 25 points—(1.060-1.035) x 1000 = 25 points.
- Alright, so now you know, you need to raise your gravity by 25 points. What does that mean? It means you need to add 25 points/gallon of dry malt extract.
- DME has a potential of 1.046, which means it contributes 46 points/lb added. So, we just need to take the 25 points (since we’re brewing one gallon) and divide it by 46 to get 0.54 lbs DME to add to the wort.

#### When do you add the DME?

There are two distinct opportunities in the brew-day process for you to add the DME. If you want my advice, take Option B.

**Option A (near the end of the boil)**: The formula I’ve outlined above assumes you’re measuring your OG near, or at the end of your boil. I’ve kept the math simple by assuming your post-boil volume is 1 gallon. However, my recipes are designed to have a post-boil volume of 1.3 gallons, so you would need to adjust the math accordingly. But, by designing my recipes to have a bit more wort than needed, it gives you the flexibility to correct your gravity near the end of the boil. Why? Because if you need to add 10 minutes to the boil, to sanitize the DME you just added, you’ll still have enough wort to transfer to the fermentor. Of course, this means you’re extending the boil, which could impact your IBUs. But at this point, I’d rather have the right OG and risk a slightly more bitter beer than planned. If you don’t want to mess with your IBUs, you could take the gravity reading with 15 minutes to go in the boil, tossing in the DME for the final 10.

**Preferable: Option B (before the boil): ** Ideally, you don’t want to wait until the end of the boil to make corrections. This is why it’s important to measure your gravity reading after the mash, *before* the boil. Here’s how this works:

- You first need to calculate the total gravity points you’re aiming for. Assuming you’re using one of my recipes which have post-boil volumes of 1.3 gallons, and assuming our recipe has a target OG of 1.065, you know that our beer needs to have 85 gravity points to hit our mark (1.3 x 65).
- So, your wort is ready for the boil, and you take a gravity reading and it comes in at 1.035. Now you need to multiply those 35 points by the pre-boil volume in your kettle. Assuming you have 2.2 gallons in the kettle, you can determine the total gravity in your kettle: 2.2 x 35 = 77 points.
- Now we know that we’re just off the mark: 85 (our target) minus 77 (our current gravity) = 8 points.
- From here, we can assess how much DME to add. Remembering from above that DME has a potential of 46 points per lb, we divide 8 by 46 to get 0.17 lbs DME to add to the wort.

*Regardless of which option you take, I can’t stress enough how much easier a refractometer makes this (instead of a hydrometer). A refractometer is almost instant in its reading and requires only a drop or two of *wort*. If you want to up your game, I can’t recommend making this switch quickly enough. I explain why here.*

### When your OG is too high

Now, in the rare chance your OG is too high, water becomes your friend. You just need to add the right amount to dilute your wort to the right level. How much water do you need? Well, math comes to our rescue yet again, as does Brad Smith, whom I must fully credit for this.

- Assuming again that our target OG is 1.060 but you’re sitting at 1.065:
- Take the current OG points (65 points) and multiply it by your final volume. Assuming 1 gallon, the math is easy: 65 points.
- We divide this number by the target points. Again, since we’re making 1-gallon brews, this is easy. 65/60 = 1.083 gallons.
- Since you have 1 gallon already, you subtract it from the number above to get the amount of water you need. In this example we’d need to add 0.083 gallons of water (314ml) to hit our target OG (1.083-1.000).

Ben M. says

Thank you Joseph!

I recently had a batch with a high gravity and few times I didn’t hit the OG target.

It is rather frustrating after all the time and money you invest in it.

Could you please help also with some tips how to define my efficiency? I believe it will help me to scale every recipe to meet the OG target.

Your tips are highly valuable!

Ben

Joseph Lavoie says

Thanks for writing in Ben. That’s a good question, and one I should probably answer in a separate post. I’ll try to do this in the next week or two and will post the link here.

Bill S says

In your basic instructions you recommend taking the OG reading when the wort is in the fermenter, just before adding the yeast.

Is that when you recommend adding the DME? Is there a contamination risk?

Joseph Lavoie says

Hi Bill,

Thanks for that awesome question. I’ve updated the guide to answer your question and provide clarity on how exactly you do this. Thanks so much for your feedback.

Jim says

I got my gravity much closer this time with a little extra grinding using our ninja blender to break up the grains more. Next time I will get them double milled, lesson learned. I am still dialing in the amount of boil off. I am sure I will get it more precise. My first batch was low. The next was closer, but it was becoming a Braggot (a type of mead made with malt and honey) so I raise the SG with honey to where I wanted it. This batch with the extra grinding was the Dry Stout, and came out a little high, so I am getting closer. This post was really handy to know that pre-boil I was right where I should be.

Joseph Lavoie says

Thanks for writing in Jim! I’m glad to see you’re dialing it in. It can take some time, but that’s part of the fun!

kurt coffed says

Hi joe – I just received your American ipa kit and the formulation is very different from what is listed here – is there a specific reason for this? the hops are totally different. really love this site, I will be coming back to it constantly – I am very new to brewing and look forward to many years with this hobby

kurt

Joseph Lavoie says

Hi Kurt,

Every recipe is different. There are so many hop varieties available to us that we can create infinite variations on a single recipe. Good luck with the brew!

Bill says

Joe: My OG on an American pale ale extract batch came in way too high – like, 1.100. The recipe calculated it should be 1.053. I’m guessing, based on what I’ve read here and elsewhere, that i used too much dME. I’d used a combo of dME and LME in previous recipes, but DME was always on the low side. this time (5-gal batch, 40-min boil), I used 3 lbs DME and added 4 lbs LME at the 30-minute mark. I’ve belatedly discovered there’s a conversion factor for DME. Arggh. Anyway, your solution above says to add water at the calculated ratio. Can I do this now that I’ve pitched the yeast into my cooled wort, using boiled/cooled water? thanks.

Joseph Lavoie says

Hi Bill, Yes, you could try that, if you have room in your fermenter for the added liquid, and ideally before fermentation starts. If you add it after primary fermentation, there’s a greater risk of oxidization.

James McKirdy says

Joeseph,

Thanks for your reply to my query about ‘missing og targets’ – Much appreciated. Once further question regarding hitting the OG. How much does sparging have to do with this? I do BIAB but in a smaller volume of water (5-6 L). I then drain and sparge with water at (ROUGHLY) Steeping temp. I get the boil volume up to about 10 L and boil away, hitting close to 1.3 gallons most times. Yet I do seem to be consistently low with OG (and FG is high usually as well). Beer still tastes OK, I reckon, but I’m hoping to hit these targets so I get the ‘intended’ product.

ANY SUGGESTIONS ARE APPRECIATED.

Cheers 🍻

James

Joseph Lavoie says

Hi James, I’m wondering about your mash efficiency. Have you kept a close eye on mash temperatures? I wonder if the temp is dropping too quickly? Or maybe you need to circulate your mash several times to ensure heat is evenly distributed.